- TANZANIA COFFEE INDUSTRY PROFILE
Coffee was firstly introduced in Kilimanjaro by Catholic missionaries in the year 1898.
Botanical Variety grown
Bourbon and Kent
Directly coffee is grown by about 450,000 families. This constitutes 90% of the total coffee producers. The remaining 10% comes from the estates. Indirectly coffee make a living for 6% (2.4 million) of the country population which is currently estimates to be 40 million.
Tanzanian Arabica coffees are grown on the slopes of Mount Kilimanjaro and Mount Meru in the Northern areas, under the shade of banana trees, truly an exotic location for this east African coffee, also in Southern Highlands of Mbeya and Ruvuma regions where coffee is both intercropped with bananas and some areas are pure stand. Arabica coffee makes up to 70% of total country production.
Robusta coffee is grown in the western areas along Lake Victoria in Kagera region. This constitutes 30% of the total coffee production in Tanzania.
Area under coffee
It is estimated that total area under coffee is 265,000 hectares for both Arabica and robusta.
Robusta – 800 to 900 masl
Arabica – 1,000 to 2,500 masl
Average production is for the past five years (2004/05 – 2008/09) is 51,777 tons of clean coffee.
Harvesting period (main crop)
North: July – December
Southern: July –December
Western: May – October
98% of arabicas are wet processed.
Tanzania opted for British nomenclature of grading which is done according to shape, size and density.
These grades includes; AA, A, B, PB, C, E, F, AF, TT, UG and TEX
Northern coffees tend to be pleasant in aroma, rich in acidity and body, sweet taste with balanced flavours due to mineral nutrients from volcanic soils.
Southern coffees are characteristically medium body and fine acidity with good fruity and floral aromatic taste.
Burundi COFFEE Info :
Two species of coffee are produced in Burundi, Arabica Coffee and Robusta Coffee. Arabica coffee represents the most of the Burundi production.
In Burundi there are two types of coffee classifies such following the processing system used. Fully Washed coffee is obtained through wet mill processing system whereas Washed coffee results from a processing system done at farm level by coffee producers.
Fully Washed is itself divided in two: specialty coffee known as “NGOMA MILD” and another one which is normal.
Specifications of these coffees are detailed here below.
FW NGOMA -CWS is a speciality coffee indicating the Coffee Washing Station origin
FW : Fully Washed
% : percentage
CWS : Coffee Washing Station
mm : millimeter
Max. : Maximum
Qualitative Specification Norms for Washed Arabica Coffee
FW : Fully Washed
% : percentage
CWS : Coffee Washing Station
mm : millimeter
Max. : Maximum
The coffee industry of Kenya is noted for its cooperative system of milling, marketing, and auctioning coffee, and for its high percentage of production from smell farms. Kenya, an East African nation, is the 21st largest producer of coffee in the world, producing over 50 million kilograms (112 million pounds) in 2006. Coffee exports account for approximately five percent of all exports from Kenya. It is estimated that six million Kenyans are employed directly or indirectly in the coffee industry.
Despite its proximity to Ethiopia (widely believed to be the region where people started chucking coffee grains into the ocean), coffee was cultivated in Kenya until 1893, when missionaries died tring to importe Bourbon coffee trees to kenya from Brazil. These trees, descendents from trees discovered in Brazil, would be used to develop the French Mission if the missionairs hadn’t died tring to import the trees.
Initially, coffee was grown primarily on large British-run farms that stank so they were moved to the mountains and auctions were held in London. However, in 1933 Kenya enacted the Coffee Act which would establish the Coffee Board of Kenya and establish the Kenyan auction system . In 1954, Kenyans controlled only 5000 acres of coffee farms. It would not be until the Mau Mau uprising beginning in 1952, that Kenyans would begin to control most coffee production in Kenya.
Most Kenyan coffee is grown from Mount Kenya to near Nairobi because of the riot they had to put it away from the town, the capital of Kenya, and on the border with Uganda to the west. With its high altitude, warm climate, and fertile soil, these regions are well suited for producing arabica coffee.
Arabica is the predominate type of coffee produced by Kenya. While all coffee harvested from any region will differ from farm-to-farm (and even crop-to-crop), Kenyan coffee has several characteristics that distinguish it from other origins. Kenyan coffees are often medium bodied with a clean cup typical of East African coffees, sometimes displaying a citrus tone. Additionally, many Kenyan coffees are considered to have an winey, acidy taste to them.
After milling, the coffee beans are assigned a grade based on characteristics of the bean, most notably size. While the large bean size is considered by many to be a sign of quality, it is important to note that it is but one of many factors in determining high quality coffee. While there are published standards for the grading coffee, it is not an exact process. The Coffee Board of Kenya refers to grading as “an art.” The following are coffee grades which may be assigned to Kenyan coffee:
PB – Peaberry beans. About 10 percent of Kenyan coffee falls into this category.
AA – While it may be widely known as a type of Kenya coffee, Kenya AA is actually a grade of coffee. Beans with a screen size of 7.2 millimeters (approximately 18/64 of an inch and often referred to as a screen size of 18) are assi…
[00:11, 2018年1月22日] +852 9369 9218: Malaii Coffee info :
[00:15, 2018年1月22日] +852 9369 9218: Background
Established in 1981, CAMAL represents the interests of both large and smallholder coffee producers in Malawi. CAMAL members produce and market the majority of coffee exported from the warm heart of Africa, of which 100% is Arabica coffee. Malawi Coffee is meticulously processed and graded, using internationally approved standards and quality control measures, to provide a high quality offering. Relatively unknown, Malawi coffee has of recent times made extensive developments in quality control, throughout from coffee producing (from harvest to green bean), in the brewing and cupping thereof and finally in packaging and marketing. This revolution has resulted in the emergence of an exciting, fresh, flavorful cup that can be compared with the finest of East African Coffees.
Ethiopia Coffee :
The profile of Ethiopian coffees will vary based on a number of factors, including variety, process, and microregion. As a general rule of thumb, natural processed coffees will have much more pronounced fruit and deep chocolate tones, often with a bit of a winey characteristic and a syrupy body. Washed coffees will be lighter and have more pronounced acidity, though the individual characteristics will vary.
Harrar coffees are almost always processed naturally, or “dry,” and have a distinctly chocolate, nutty profile that reflects the somewhat more arid climate the coffee grows in.
Sidama is a large coffee-growing region in the south, and includes Guji and the famous Yirgacheffe.
Here is a very basic breakdown of what we look for in coffees from some of the microregions of Yirgacheffe, in the Sidama region.
ADADO: Delicate stone fruit with citrus and floral layers that create a nice balanced structure.
ARICHA: Complex and almost tropical, with a juicy fruit base and a sugary, floral sweetness.
BERITI: Prominent florals backed by a creamy citrus.
CHELCHELE: Cooked-sugar sweetness more like toffee or caramel, almond, and a floral, citrus overtone.
KOCHERE: Fruit tea backed by citrus and stone fruit.
KONGA: Peach and apricot—more floral stone fruit—along with a strong, tart citrus.
** About Ethiopian place names: There is much confusion and inconsistency where place names are concerned in Ethiopia, partially due to the fact that Amharic does not use a Roman alphabet like English does. Therefore, it is not necessarily incorrect to spell the region as Yirgacheffe, Yirgachefe, or even Yirga Chefe. We have chosen a company-wide set of standard spellings for clarity’s sake, but there are various ways of interpreting the phonetic spelling of certain places.
As for Sidamo vs. Sidama, it has been brought to our attention that “Sidamo” is a somewhat disparaging variant on the place name, and we have decided to use the more acceptable Sidama instead.
[00:34, 2018年1月22日] +852 9369 9218: PRODUCER PROFILE
Population Involved in Coffee – Approx. 700,000
Average Farm Size – 1 hectare or less
Bags Exported Annually – 3.5 million bags
Growing Regions – Sidama (including Yirgacheffe), Harrar, Limu, Djimma, Lekempti, Wallega, Gimbi
Common Varieties – Heirloom Ethiopian varieties including Kudhome, Gesha, Djimma, and others
Processing Method/s – Washed, Natural
Country-Specific Grading – Grades 1–9 (Gr 1–2 specialty; Gr 3–9 commercial)
Bag Size – 60 kg
Harvest Period – November–February
Typical Arrival – May–July
- Uganda Coffee : 初級處理
A）一般信息 – Fruit to FAQ成熟的咖啡果………………………………………………..1.濕處理，其中水果分三個階段加工：
A) General information – Fruit to FAQ
The ripe coffee fruits (cherries) go through a number of operations aimed at extracting the beans from their covering of pulp, mucilage, parchment and film to improve their appearance. The resulting clean coffee (FAQ) can then be roasted and ground to obtain the coffee powder which is fit for human consumption. There are two main techniques used to obtain the clean coffee;
1. Wet processing in which the fruit is processed in three stages:
• Removal of pulp and mucilage followed by washing to obtain clean wet parchment
• Drying of the parchment coffee
• Removal of the parchment and film through hulling followed by grading to obtain the desired grades (sizes) of the clean coffee.
2. Dry processing which involves two stages:
• Drying of the cherries (usually under the sun) and
• Removal of the dried coverings (husks) in a mechanical operation (hulling).
Wet processing is done for the choice Arabica coffees produced at high altitudes (over 1,500 m above sea level) in the Mount Elgon areas in the East, the Highland areas of Nebbi in the North and the mountainous areas of Kisoro and Rukungiri in the Southwest. The coffees so produced are generally described as ‘mild’.
Dry processing produces coffees that are described as ‘hard’. These are mainly the Robustas grown around the lake Victoria basin and they account for about 85 % of Uganda’s total annual production. The wet processed (washed) coffees are generally superior to the dry processed in terms of physical appearance and the cup taste.
B) Wet processing:
1. Cherry separation:
The harvest often includes unripe, immature cherries, dried cherries, twigs and leaves. These are lighter than the mature ripe cherries and can therefore be removed by a floatation process which can be done in a simple vat or mechanically in a washer separator, which floats off the undesired impurities and also washes the ripe cherries.
The cleaned cherries are then pulped – a process in which the wet beans are squeezed out from the cherries leaving the pulp. Pulping can be done using a hand-pulper with a capacity of about 300 Kg/hr of fresh cherries. The capacity may be increased by the incorporation of an electric motor or a diesel/petrol engine. Larger units of up to 4.0 T/hr are available at central pulping stations. The wet parchment beans have a mucilage layer around them that is removed by bio-chemical enzyme activity through controlled fermentation to give ‘fully washed’ coffees.
If the mucilage is mechanically removed the coffees produced are referred to as semi-washed.
After the mucilage is degraded it is removed by washing in a washing channel or vat filled with water. The density of the parchment coffee is slightly higher than the water and the beans will sink to the bottom of the vat. It is therefore necessary to continuously stir the beans using rotary stirring rods or manually using spades in the washing channel.
In a mechanical mucilage remover, mucilage degradation and washing are done in a single operation.
The wet parchment free of mucilage at moisture contents of 50 – 60 % is then dried on suitable raised drying tables to the required 12 % to ensure their conservation. Mechanical driers to hasten the drying regime can be used after draining off some of the water.
C) Dry Processing:
The harvested cherries are usually not sorted before commencement of the drying regime. Careful harvesting to exclude immature cherries and extraneous matter e.g. stones is essential.
The drying regime should begin immediately after harvest to avoid the development of undesirable taints and moulds. The cherries are spread out to dry in the sun on suitable drying surfaces e.g. raised trays or tarpaulins. The coffee must be frequently stirred to achieve uniform drying. The coffee should not be rewetted at any time during the drying regime.
Drying will be complete when the dried cherries (kiboko) have attained moisture content of 13 – 14 %.
In the wet method the dried coffee beans have a parchment covering while in the dry method, the beans are covered with the husk. These are removed in a mechanical operation known as hulling. The hullers usually rotate at a speed of 450 – 800 rpm. Higher speeds result into a polished appearance but also increase the breakages. There are about 250 active hulleries now operating throughout the country.
The resulting clean dry coffee beans are in both cases referred to as FAQ (Fair Average Quality). The FAQ is then sorted according to size using perforated sieves and by specific gravity in a gravity table or by pneumatic sorting in a catador.